The Team

Editorial Board

Vikas Bhatt and Joe Ladowski
Editors-in-Chief

Ajay Major, MD, MBA and Aleena Paul, MD, MBA
Founders and Editors-in-Chief Emeriti

Andrew Kadlec
Managing Editor

Mansi Sheth
Eric Donahue

Allison Lyle
Steven Lange
Nita Chen
Nisha Hariharan
Yuli Zhu
Luke Fraley
Ria Pal
Samia Nawaz
Tim Beck
Romela Petrosyan
Visvarath Varadarajan
Anup Bhattacharya
Mark Shafarenko
Jacob Kammerman
Evan Torline
Roshini Selladurai
Ileana Horattas
Brent Schnipke
Daniel Coleman
Angelica D’Aiello
Tolulope Omojokun
Daniel Fuchs
Lexy Adams
Brenna Brown
Lisa Tran
Michael Kung
Jessica Downing
Maddison Bibby
Heba Albasha
Sandy Tadros

Medical Student Editors

David Yu
Olivia Abbate
Graphic Designers

Nisha Pradhan
Chief Social Media Manager

Dustin Nowotny
Lauren Bojarski

Melanie Watt
Social Media Managers

Phyllis Ying
Samantha Margulies
Nina Nguyen
Lindsey McDaniel
Claire Drom
Anne Nzuki
Chris Deans
Diane Brackett
Natalie Wilcox
Chelcie Soroka
Kate Joyce
Jarna Shah
Will Jaffee
Matthew Lenardis
Hormuz Nicolwala
Sanjay Salgado
Jimmy Tam Huy Pham
Kimberly Ku
Sasha Yakhkind
Laura Mucenski
Francis Dailey

Dragos Rezeanu
Nikki Nametz
Emily Lu
Brent Bjornsen
Theresa Yang
Amol Utrankar

Staff Emeriti

Columnists

Emilia Calvaresi
Mariam Bonyadi
Nikita Rane
Rosemary Beavers
Austin Wesevich
Kate Bock
Joseph Joo
Ajay Koti
Joey Johnson
Valerie Efros
Tony Sun
Aishwarya Rajagopalan
Neha Kumar
Tiffany Lin

Contributing Writers

Birju Rao
Corey Meador
Ronald Sahyouni
Ghady Rahhal
Roheet Kakaday
Alex Taffany
Joshua Greenwald
Branden Garcia
Joshua Niforatos
John Power
Karishma Bhatt
Brian Lefchak
Aleksandra Bacewicz
Nathan Juergens
Katelee Muller
Zoe Feld
Dorothy Charles

Sarah Mortimer
Jon Zaid
Wesley Thomas
Bridgett McNulty
Tehreem Rehman
Tyson Schwab
Jocelyn Wu
Matthew Trifan
Nolan Adams
Nathan Sherman
Michael Simon
Emily DiLillo
Amanda King
Daniella Sisniega
Charlotte Collins
Annika Burnett
Andrew Schneider
Rohit Mukherjee
Jeff Hassebrock
Caitlin Bass
Rebecca Russell
Peter Farag
Cara Rose Zimmerman
Allen Rodriguez
Elizabeth Shay
Rithu Srikantha
Aisha Harris
Nabeel U. Ali
Jordan Perchik
Omeed Alipour
Derek Wu
Daniel Gates
Tony Davis
Claire McDaniel
Leela Chockalingam
Jennifer Hong
Damien Zreibe
Preeti Panda
Alyssa Rothman
Jes Minor
Max Feinstein
Amanda Romeu
Vivienne Meljen
Ashley White-Stern
Paige Finkelstein
Jason Roley
Matthew Sweet
Leigh Finnegan
Jacob Kirkpatrick
Omar Aldaas
Herbert Rosenbaum
Noah Kojima
Chiemeziem Eke
Ryan Yarnall
Krishna Constantino
Tequilla Manning
Katharine Lawrence
David Yang
Parsa Salehi
Frank Qian
Hannah Simon
Anna Bury
Augie Lindmark
Asma Akhtar
Farhan Shah
Surabhi Nirkhe
Cassie Kosarek
Meghal Shah
Joe Burns
Matthew So
Arielle Gerard
Mariya Cherneykina
Jennifer Tsai
Nate Milburn
Kelly Aminian
Krupa Harishankar
Victoria Psomiadis
Naomi Hardy
Pratik Kanabur
Keenan Hogan
Saloni Sheth
Trevor Mooney
Abraham Khan
Malone V Hill III
Riju Dasgupta
Yan Leyfman
Ryan Denu
Qing Meng Zhang
Paulette Pham
Matt Peters
Jesse Paulsen
Abigail Cline
Joniqua Ceasar
Siyu Xiao
Emily Kirchner
Parth Shukla
Benjamin Gandomani
Rae Dong
Delaney Osborn
Hannah Decker
Kevin Shi
Masood Mohammed
Houda Abdelrahman
Valerie Grant
Omar Rahman
Emily Fu
David Warshaw
Shreya Madhavaram
Talia Robledo-Gil
Adesina Adedeji
Okechukwu Anochie
Madhavi Bhavsar
Farah Dadabhoy
Amy Rogers
Joginder Singh
Candace Borders
Alexa Lean
Jeffrey Mahlum
Laura Faiver
Alisha Nanda
Haikoo Shah
Olivia Low
Joshua Stein
Gabriella Raffa
Jessica Ubanyionwu
Daniel Ricketti
Millin Sekhon
Alexander Chaitoff
Madeleine Pinne
Shilpa Darivemula
Mary McGunigal
Ibukunoluwa Araoye
Hammad Khan
Kira Neel
Ethan Litman
Sriharsha Gowtham
Shivani Srivastav
Erica Patel
Poorna Sreekumar
Karim Sariahmed
Allyson Brown
Michael Tarkey
Omar Jamil
Kathleen Tzan
Deland Weyrauch
Neepam Shah
Nancy Yang
Alex Slaby
Tyler McKinnish
Grace Hatton
Nyembezi L Dhliwayo
Mikey Montalbano
Kasopefoluwa Oguntuyo

Guest Writers

Talal Almas
Sagar Patel, MD
Stuart Maitland, MB, BS, MSc
Matthew Bloom, DO
Sahil Munjal, MD
Daniel Orlovich, MD, PharmD
Konstantin Karmazin, MD
John Kim, DO
Suhas Gondi
Gary Shlifer, DO
Therese Castrogiovanni
Joseph Chiweshe, MD, MPH
Valencia Walker, MD
Erin Ayala
Chethan Sarabu
Rebecca Hogue
Stephanie Ettinger de Cuba
C. J. Skok
Annie Robinson
Aaron Vrolijk
Chantal Mendes
Kevin Wang
Aaron Schweitzer
Tejus Pradeep
Reena Karani, MD
Roberto De Los Santos
Anna Delamerced

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in-Training Team

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Albany Medical College: 42.652616, -73.775000
Wayne State University School of Medicine: 42.352497, -83.055602
University of Arizona College of Medicine: 33.451610, -112.066844
Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine: 33.663835, -112.184192
University of California, Irvine School of Medicine: 33.648749, -117.842541
Lincoln Memorial University DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine: 36.575668, -83.660231
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University: 41.826814, -71.402989
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine: 41.896575, -87.619630
Boston University School of Medicine: 42.336167, -71.072136
Georgetown University School of Medicine: 38.912240, -77.077019
Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine: 30.609020, -96.349198
University of Louisville School of Medicine: 38.214012, -85.759811
Indiana University School of Medicine: 39.774739, -86.179952
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine: 25.791758, -80.212888
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine: 33.581893, -101.874750
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry: 43.130871, -77.629876
University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine : 41.791516, -87.602815
East Tennessee State University James H. Quillen College of Medicine: 36.304640, -82.363028
University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine: 49.258936, -123.252107
Northeast Ohio Medical University: 41.102733, -81.244251
University of Alabama School of Medicine: 33.507512, -86.799861
University of Massachusetts Medical School: 42.275943, -71.760765
University of Vermont College of Medicine: 44.477851, -73.196484
The George Washington University School of Medicine: 38.900373, -77.050778
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health: 43.076647, -89.431243
The Ohio State University College of Medicine: 39.993326, -83.016928
Mayo Medical School: 44.022136, -92.466666
New York Medical College: 41.085054, -73.810066
University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine: 41.872113, -87.648044
Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine: 26.081743, -80.249743
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine: 39.139134, -84.503695
Wake Forest University School of Medicine: 36.136750, -80.278482
Saint Louis University School of Medicine: 38.622183, -90.238032
University of Pikeville Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine: 37.478915, -82.521004
Rush Medical College: 41.874004, -87.669227
Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College: 19.036799, 72.858486
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons: 40.807536, -73.962573
Yale School of Medicine: 41.303043, -72.933861
Emory University School of Medicine: 33.794012, -84.321854
Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine: 42.001855, -87.658184
University of Texas Southwestern Medical School: 32.810730, -96.836182
New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine: 40.769704, -73.982411
Cooper Medical School of Rowan University: 39.940404, -75.119729
University of South Florida College of Medicine: 28.058726, -82.413846
Union College: 42.817743, -73.930522
Saba University School of Medicine: 17.625802, -63.246821
University of Vermont: 44.477853, -73.196464
Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario: 43.010874, -81.275056
University of Central Florida College of Medicine: 28.602428, -81.200060
Dubai Medical College: 25.249069, 55.417053
University of Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine: 45.378659, -71.929604
Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences: 31.307055, 75.593333
University of Texas Medical Branch: 29.311030, -94.775631
Chicago Medical School: 42.300516, -87.859619
The Commonwealth Medical College: 41.413268, -75.655996
University of Toledo College of Medicine: 41.617390, -83.617719
Drexel University College of Medicine : 40.019561, -75.180195
Rice University: 29.717394, -95.401831
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland: 53.338985, -6.261986
University of Tennessee Health Science Center: 35.139497, -90.030435
Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine: 39.563314, -104.815296
University of Kansas School of Medicine: 37.701543, -97.315572
Weill Cornell Medical College: 40.765652, -73.955484
University of Nebraska College of Medicine: 41.254739, -95.975025
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine: 34.065444, -118.202241
University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine: 39.743501, -105.004231
Medical College of Wisconsin: 43.043590, -88.021168
Stony Brook University School of Medicine: 40.913096, -73.123586
Tufts University School of Medicine: 42.350005, -71.062028
Eastern Virginia Medical School: 36.850769, -76.285873
Boonshoft School of Medicine at Wright State University: 39.780420, -84.063303
Michigan State University College of Human Medicine: 42.722624, -84.464810
West Virginia University School of Medicine: 39.654813, -79.958101
Baylor College of Medicine: 29.710469, -95.395894
Mount Sinai School of Medicine: 40.789023, -73.953138
University of Minnesota Medical School: 44.972134, -93.233028
Faculty of Medicine at Dalhousie University: 44.636581, -63.591655
Ross University School of Medicine: 15.557193, -61.459896
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine: 39.298767, -76.592837
Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine: 45.487411, -122.687554
University at Buffalo School of Medicine: 42.930020, -78.845342
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine: 40.442583, -79.961685
Temple University School of Medicine: 40.006865, -75.151905
University of New Mexico School of Medicine: 35.087642, -106.618044
University of North Texas Health Science Center: 32.749542, -97.369030
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University: 39.949620, -75.157336
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport: 32.480469, -93.760714
University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine: 43.662892, -79.395656
Creighton University School of Medicine: 41.265011, -95.947707
Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School: 40.494583, -74.449167
American University of Integrative Sciences, St Maarten School of Medicine: 18.041215, -63.053073
Windsor University School of Medicine: 17.290671, -62.707773
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine: 41.500744, -81.618584
University of Pennsylvania: 39.952219, -75.193214
Faculty of Medicine of Memorial University of Newfoundland: 47.573798, -52.732905
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine: 40.005868, -75.216406
Albert Einstein College of Medicine: 40.850826, -73.845623
Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine: 37.257280, -79.942626
University of Washington School of Medicine: 47.651679, -117.413712
Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine: 40.716625, -73.599305
Tulane University School of Medicine: 29.954940, -90.076944
Penn State College of Medicine: 40.263712, -76.675440
University of North Carolina School of Medicine: 35.904912, -79.046913
Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine: 25.758058, -80.371285
University of Oklahoma College of Medicine: 35.480915, -97.495565
Rutgers University: 40.478671, -74.431789
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine: 41.663082, -91.545274
Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine: 41.827463, -87.999190
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA: 34.066463, -118.443069
Peshawar Medical College: 34.028353, 71.532433
University of Florida College of Medicine: 30.347403, -81.664267
University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine: 45.423106, -75.683133
Case Western Reserve School of Medicine: 41.504917, -81.604103
California School of Podiatric Medicine: 37.820296, -122.266278
Brown University: 41.826772, -71.402548
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania: 39.947434, -75.192268
Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences: 39.106314, -94.561798
University of Texas Medical School at Houston: 29.926244, -95.596987
The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth: 43.708676, -72.285142
U.C. Davis School of Medicine: 38.552954, -121.452539
Medical College of Georgia: 33.469163, -81.988234
Children\'s HealthWatch: 42.337015, -71.070589
Washington University School of Medicine: 38.635168, -90.262682
University of Utah School of Medicine: 40.770380, -111.835748
SUNY Upstate Medical University: 43.041864, -76.139834
American University of Antigua College of Medicine: 17.156127, -61.797581
New York University School of Medicine: 40.742051, -73.974375
Harvard Medical School: 42.335656, -71.104143
Mercer University School of Medicine: 32.827916, -83.648110
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences: 34.747460, -92.320275
Sri Ramachandra University: 13.040536, 80.142662
King\'s College London: 51.511486, -0.115997
San Juan Bautista School of Medicine: 18.200175, -66.051590
University of Birmingham: 52.450817, -1.930513
University of Maryland School of Medicine: 39.288771, -76.626063
University of California, Riverside School of Medicine: 33.973706, -117.328064
Sackler Faculty of Medicine - Tel Aviv University: 32.113314, 34.804388
University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine: 52.201667, 0.117788
West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine: 37.804041, -80.438119
Oklahoma School of Community Medicine: 36.102384, -95.924441
University of Texas Health Science Center School of Medicine: 29.507070, -98.575971
University of Kentucky Medical Center: 38.031695, -84.509092
University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences: 47.924364, -97.067809
: 38.948502, -95.264186
Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine: 39.830854, -75.006658
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans: 48.216038, 16.378984
Washington University in St. Louis: 38.648789, -90.310796
Larkin Community Hospital Palm Springs Campus: 25.868801, -80.312296
Medical University of South Carolina: 32.785149, -79.947852
Stanford University School of Medicine: 37.432614, -122.174363
Newcastle University: 54.979187, -1.614661
University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Medicine: 39.083428, -94.575316
St. Matthew\'s University School of Medicine: 19.340129, -81.379399